Explore MMCFs

Manmade cellulosics (MMCFs) are regenerated fibers usually made from the dissolved wood pulp or “cellulose” of trees. Viscose, lyocell, and modal are all kinds of manmade cellulosics. Because they’re plant-based, MMCFs are renewable, and so have the potential to be a climate-friendly material if the wood is sourced sustainably and the processing chemicals are handled properly.


Absorbent, strong, and breathable, viscose has a wide range of applications and is the most important manmade cellulosic in terms of volume.

Other MMCFs

Lyocell and modal are versatile materials used for apparel like denim, t-shirts, and tops. Like other MMCFs, they’re both biodegradable.

Manmade cellulosics in numbers


Tonnes of MMCFs produced in 2021


MMCF's share of the global fiber market in 2021


Recycled MMCFs’ share of the global fiber market in 2021


We’re accelerating the uptake of forest-friendly and recycled solutions.

We’re working to help the fashion and textiles industry switch to materials that have less of an impact on people and the natural world. For manmade cellulosics, that means pushing forward deforestation-free solutions and those that preserve high conservation value forests. We’re also playing our part in encouraging brands to support recycled MMCF production, which is expected to rise significantly in the coming years due to increased investment in research and development.

blue tree bark.
Materials Production Dashboard

Get the latest data

You can access our latest data on production volume for MMCFs in our Materials Production Dashboard.

trees in a forest.

Frequently Asked Questions

If you have a question not answered here, get in touch with us directly, and we’ll be happy to answer it for you.

What are next-generation MMCFs?

Next-gen MMCFs are manmade cellulosic fibers derived from waste streams, such as post-industrial scraps and post-consumer garments. These materials provide sources for MMCF fibers that go beyond wood-derived feedstocks, while reducing waste.

Where can I find the MMCF Supplier Questionnaire Survey?

The MMCF Supplier Questionnaires can be found on each MMCF supplier’s website. Although highly encouraged, it’s not mandatory for suppliers to complete this survey and publish it on their website.

Other material categories

Plant Fibers

Plants give us fibers like cotton, hemp, flax, jute, and more.


Synthetics are fibers made through chemical processes.


Animal fibers and materials are popular natural choices for textiles.